Professor, School of Biological Sciences (SBS), NISER
Hon. Diploma: Medical University, Varna, Bulgaria
Systems Biology (BE1), Biophysics & Biostatistics (B203),
Science of Life (I & II) (B101 & 102)
Quantitative Biology (B558/B758) and laboratory courses
Chemical Biology (B457/B657)
Basic Techniques in Life Science
At Karolinska Institutet
Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS)
@ NISER (since 2009)
Mukhopadhyay, S. and Aich, P. (2022). Cost Effective Method for gDNA Isolation from the Cecal Content and High Yield Procedure for RNA Isolation from the Colonic Tissue of Mice. Bio-protocol 12(15): e4484. DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.4484.
Impact of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on liver steatosis/fibrosis/inflammation and redox balance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Francesco Bellanti, Aurelio Lo Buglio, Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Sławomir Kasperczyk, Palok Aich, Shivaram P Singh, Gaetano Serviddio, Gianluigi Vendemiale. World J Gastroenterol 2022 July 14; 28(26): 3243-3257. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v28.i26.3243
Effects of starch-rich or fat-rich diets on metabolism, adiposity, and glycemia in immune-biased, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Raktim Mukherjee, Shalini Pandey, Arindam Ghosh, and Palok Aich (in press, J Nutritional Biochemistry 2022)
Postnatal intestinal mucosa and gut microbial composition develop hand in hand: A mouse study. Uday Pandey and Palok Aich. (in press, Biomedical Journal 2022), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2022.03.004
Differential colitis susceptibility of Th1- and Th2-biased mice: A multi-omics approach. Sohini Mukhopadhyay, Subha Saha, Subhayan Chakraborty, Punit Prasad, Arindam Ghosh, Palok Aich. PLoS One. Published: March 9, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0264400
Microbiota transplantation from younger to older mice could restore lost immunity to effectively clear salmonella infection in Th2-biased BALB/c mice, Salila Pradhan, Pratikshya Ray, Palok Aich, Life Sciences 2021, 120201, ISSN 0024-3205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.120201. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320521011887)
Predictive Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease in Adult Canadian Population. Punam Pahwa, Luan Chu, Chandima Karunanayake, Palok Aich, Markus Hecker, Anurag Saxena, Philip Griebel, Soumya Niyogi. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 2021, 20,1199–1209.
The starch-rich diet causes lipidemia while the fat-rich diet induces visceral adiposity, meta-inflammation, and Insulin resistance differentially in immune-biased mouse strains. Raktim Mukherjee & Palok Aich. Food Biosciences 2021, 42, August 2021, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101136 .
Pratikshya Ray, Uday Pandey and Palok Aich. Comparative analysis of beneficial effects of Vancomycin treatment on Th1- and Th2-biased mice and the role of gut microbiota. J Applied Microbiology 2020,. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.14853
Dipanjan Guha, Raktim Mukherjee and Palok Aich. Macrophage plays important role in cortisol and serotonin-induced adipogenesis in vitro, In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal. 2020; doi:10.1007/s11626-020-00482-1 [equal contribution: DG & RM] [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 5].
Rinku Pramanick, Niranjan Mayadeo, Himangi Warke, Shahina Begum, Palok Aich, and Clara Aranha. Vaginal microbiota of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis: Are they different from normal microbiota? Microbial Pathogenesis 2019, 134, 103599. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31212037
Dipanjan Guha, Arka Banerjee, Raktim Mukherjee, Biswaranjan Pradhan, Maria Peneva, Georgi Aleksandrov, Sujit Suklabaidya, Shantibhushan Senapati and Palok Aich. A Probiotic formulation containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus DWT1 inhibits tumor growth by activating pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. Journal of Functional Foods 2019, 56, 232-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.03.030
J. Tomporowski, J.M. Heer, B. Allan, S. Gomis, P. Aich, Carbon nanotubes significantly enhance the biological activity of CpG ODN in chickens, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2019, 561, 135-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.02.040
Naik, A., Pandey, U., Mukherjee, R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Chakraborty, S., Ghosh, A., Aich, P. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reverses mortality in neonatal mice against Salmonella challenge. Toxicology Research (RSC) 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TX00006B
Priyadarshini, S., Pradhan, B., Griebel, P., and Aich, P. Cortisol regulates immune and metabolic processes in murine adipocytes and macrophages through HTR2c and HTR5a serotonin receptors. Eur. J Cell Biol. 2018, 97(7), 483-492, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcb.2018.07.004 https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/0EE2D999A7BDB0C4C5EEB6223DB4DC4F1E0D92B27A5827A2A4B3DE77C53976DCAA58D5FC8EDE053FFF2F160B74524879
Priyadarshini, S., Pradhan, B., and Aich, P. Role of Murine macrophage in temporal regulation of cortisol and serotonin induced adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes when grown together. Biol Open 2018, http://bio.biologists.org/content/biolopen/7/8/bio034629.full.pdf?with-ds=yes
Pradhan, B., Guha, D., Naik, A. K., Banerjee, A., Tambat, S., Chawla, S., Senapati, S., and Aich, P. , Probiotics L. acidophilus and B. clausii Modulate Gut Microbiota in Th1- and Th2-Biased Mice to Ameliorate Salmonella Typhimurium-Induced Diarrhea. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2018. DOI:10.1007/s12602-018-9436-5; https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12602-018-9436-5
Debakanta Mishra, Debakanta Mishra, Kaibalya R. Dash, Preetam Nath, Prasant K. Parida, Subhendu Panigrahi, Chittaranjan Khatua, Suryakant Parida, Sambit K. Behera, Shivaram P. Singh, Palok Aich. Temporal Trends in the Etiology of Chronic Liver Disease in Coastal Eastern Odisha, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, Volume 7, Supplement 2, 2017, Page S93DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2017.05.168
For complete publications, please click here
Palok Aich on ResearchGate (Click here)
PDF: Biophysics/Molecular Dynamics/Molecular Biology/LASER instrumentation
Scientist @ VIDO: Innate Mucosal Immunity
Faculty @ NISER: Role of Microbiome-Gut-Adipose-Brain Axis on innate mucosal immunity
Ph.D. (Supervisor: Professor Dipak Dasgupta). I explored mechanisms of interactions of select antitumor antibiotics with DNA and the role of magnesium ions.
I moved to Stockholm, Sweden [Stockholm University (SU) and Karolinska Institutet] (KI), following the submission of my Ph.D. thesis, to start my 1st PDF research (Supervisor: Professor Astrid Gräslund, SU) career. My area of study aimed to understand higher-ordered DNA structures (by 2D NMR, CD, and other biophysical techniques). Around the same time, I also got introduced into the area of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) to understand base pair dynamics in nucleic acids, including PNA, at a single-molecule level with Professor Rudolf Rigler (Rulle, KI). We built the world's first FCS to work in the ultraviolet light region. In Rulle's lab, I also got trained in fixing and maintaining an Argon ion laser and a dye laser.
I decided to move to the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada) for the 2nd PDF position. I preferred the Canadian PDF over other opportunities at Louis Pasteur Institute (Strasbourg, France) or the USA. At Saskatoon [University of Saskatchewan] for my PDF (Supervisor: Professor Jeremy Lee) research, I started working on establishing a higher-ordered DNA structure in vivo using c-myc and c-src oncogenes.
While working on the project, we discovered a novel form of DNA that could conduct electricity when doped with specific transition metal ions. We term this form of DNA as M-DNA [M-stands for 'metal'], and we patented it. We also tried to develop an abzyme against M-DNA. A company named ADNAVANCE was founded. I got so much hooked up with the discovery of M-DNA that I declined offers from the Dana Farber Cancer Institute (Harvard University, Boston) and also turned down a job offer in a start-up photonics company in Boston during that time.
I joined a biopharmaceutical company in Canada after my PDF training as a Group Leader [Bio-imaging]. After a year, I accepted a position at the University of Saskatchewan, as in-charge, Biophysical section of Saskatchewan Structural Sciences Center, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. Shortly, I was offered a position at VIDO (now VIDO-Intervac) as a scientist (PI at the level of Assistant Professor) to work in the areas of Omics to understand innate mucosal immunity. At VIDO, I developed several programs in innate mucosal immunity to understand the effects of psychological stress on host-pathogen interactions for bovine enteric and respiratory diseases in cattle models and enhance the efficacy of immune stimulators using immune stimulators nanotechnology in chicken.
I continued at VIDO from 2002 to 2009. In 2006, I got promoted to the next level, i.e., equivalent to Associate Professor. During this time, I got associated with a) Department of Biochemistry and b) Department of Physiology and Anatomy of the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, as an Adjunct Professor and Associate faculty member. As an Adjunct professor or associate faculty member, I designed courses on Systems Biology and Physiological Genomics to teach 4th-year undergraduate students.
In 2009, we returned to India. When I left VIDO, I had seven ongoing projects funded by various Canadian Funding Agencies. I could not bring these funds, for obvious reasons, to India. I then transferred those projects to other faculty members of VIDO.
In 2009, I joined NISER as an Associate Professor and started understanding the effects of psychological stress on humans to develop programs on innate mucosal immunity.
Evolution of the work that I initiated @ NISER. My primary goal is to establish an effective way to strengthen innate mucosal immunity. The modern-day world requires more work than play. At the same time, such demand puts us under various stressors (cause of stress) with the potential to perturb homeostasis. By homeostasis, I try to imply a process where physiologically, we try to restore normalcy by adjusting the parameters of several physiological functions of a system. A few of the lab's interests, to begin with, were a) how do we achieve the restoration, b) how are balancing acts performed among different physiological events, such as immunity and metabolism? My research group developed methodologies to quantify the psychological stress status of individuals, correlating stress with disease susceptibility (e.g., metabolic syndromes and infectious diseases) and how we can prime innate immunity to prevent such infections. To prime immunity, we selected probiotics and host defense peptides. We also tried to enhance the efficacy of these immune modulators with nano-materials. The initial leads from our work prompted me to understand the gut microbiome's role on the gut-adipose-brain axis. This approach is critical in understanding the health and physiology to establish intrinsic intervention for the host.
My focus is on the understanding role of the gut microbiota in modulating innate immunity and metabolism. We try to understand the effects of the gut microbiome on the brain and the effects of psychological stress (as a perturbation to brain function) on the gut microbiota. We try to understand the reversibility of the Microbiome-Gut-adipose-Brain axis. The study is being done in differentially immune-biased mice models. Human studies are also being planned with Industry sponsorship. We are also developing different organoids (mini-organ). Gut epithelium organoid of mouse origin is already established in the laboratory. We are now initiating adipose and brain organoids.
We are also analyzing existing data to correlate metabolome and gut microbiome in various human metabolic disorders to develop personalized probiotics using bioinformatic and clinical studies.
Hundreds of trillions (1014) of tiny creatures call our body home, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and others. They're not always bad news, and in fact, our health depends on having a thriving collection of microbes. Our results lead to an insight that the correlation of individuals' genomic and metagenomic (especially for gut microbiota) features might lead to a better understanding of physiology and better sustenance of health. There are microbes everywhere in our bodies. Some coat our skin (yes, even after washing our hands). Others populate the inside of our mouth (some of them forming tooth-destroying plaque, and others that are harmless or beneficial). According to some estimates, our large intestine is the largest repository of microbes—about three pounds' worth. If we could count the number of individual bacterial cells, we would find that they vastly outnumber our human cells, although they are small.
Some details are fuzzy, but we know that our microbiomes are linked to our health. The immune system doesn't develop properly without signals from skin microbes. Microbes can influence obesity and have been linked to various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Our health is connected with the health of our tiny passengers, but scientists are still struggling to understand what a "healthy" microbiome should look like.
We know, for example, that people whose gut ecosystems are overrun by deadly Clostridium difficile can be cured with microbes from a healthy donor—the now-famous fecal transplant. We know that probiotics can prevent a horrific infection called NEC (Necrotizing enterocolitis) that kills preemies. Beyond that, results are mostly inconclusive. Probiotics seem to protect against diarrhea in some trials but not others, for example.
While microbes seem important in ascertaining health, understanding the mode of action and mechanisms is not clear. It has been shown that food plays an essential role in setting up the microbiome in the gut, but how the change in diet will alter the microbiome and how it will influence health is an important area yet to be explored.
When our food gets to the microbes in our large intestine, the starch, sugar, fats, and proteins have been digested and absorbed. This process leaves a handful of nutrients that are sometimes called "prebiotics." They include a variety of carbohydrates that our enzymes can't digest, including soluble fiber, resistant starch, and specific oligosaccharides. Likely, many of the beneficial effects of fiber and a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may be because of such a diet's effects on gut microbes.
There's no doubt that people will dope via microbes. Companies are talking about significant cosmetic changes. There will be new smells new functions. It's an exciting area because you don't have to modify a person's genes, right, if you want to give them a new role. You can provide them with a pill with a microbe that has a unique function. If the microbes don't stay around, you might have to take that pill every day, but you could still add a living, bio-producing organism into your system that could last longer or do different things than a typical drug.
The central question of my research group is, how does microbiota maintain homeostasis to define health? By perturbing a typical microbial environment, we would like to know (a) how is the restoration dynamics, (b) how does the perturbation affect physiology (e.g., metabolism and innate mucosal immunity), (c) how do gut-adipose-brain axis regulate the gut microbiome or how is physiology being regulated by the microbiome.
We use immunologically (Th1- and Th2) differently biased mice models. We have initiated some human studies to compare metabolic and neuronal diseases with gut microbial dynamics. We have also developed mouse intestinal epithelial organoid systems. We plan to extend the work to establish a) adipose organoids to understand the browning of white adipose tissue b) a combination organoid system of Mouse Intestinal Organoid (MIO), Enteric Nervous System (ENS) cellular components, and Vagal Sensory Neurons. Eventually, we will plan to perform organoid studies with human systems.
We plan to understand major biology related to health and the microbiome with the organoid or mini-organ systems.
Public-Academic Lecture @
International project student
David Datzkiw, an international student, from, University of Winnipeg, Canada spent 6 months in the laboratory of Palok Aich of SBS, NISER. David was a recipient of Queen Elizabeth Scholarship and visited NISER as Queen Elizabeth Scholar (QES). During his visit, he mainly worked on a project related to probiotic
and adipogenesis and as a QES fellow, he was also allowed to learn diversity of Indian culture and made a few small trips around certain
areas of India like Kerala and West Bengal besides visiting local sites in Odisha. He also made his debut in scientific publication from Aich’s group at NI
SER. A figure from his first publication also could made a place in the cover page of the journal. A link for his first paper can be found at http://press.mu-varna.bg/ojs/index.php/bmr/article/view/2108. Overall his experience was great as can be seen by exploring the link http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/graduate-studies/features/bioscience-student-david-datzkiw-on-research-and-being-a-qe-scholar.html.
While science is important to understand nature and to make our living better it is more important to make people understand the value of Science. To make people aware of potentials of science is through proper communication. What is Science, what is its value, how is it done, what scientists do and why do they do it and many more questions must roam around in the minds of people. Onus is on us to make people understand and get clarified on all these issues. Moreover, Scientists do what they do using the tax payers or people’s money. Therefore, it is our moral obligation to ensure that work is disseminated appropriately and regularly to them. It is also important that senior scientists make an effort to make the juniors understand the value and need of science communication. With this goal, Dr. Palok Aich of School of Biological Sciences (SBS), NISER initiated an effort to train some interested young minds of NISER in science communication. He started with biology students and after a couple months of training around 20 biology students (PhD candidates and UG, Integrated MSc students) presented two short (around 15 minutes) programs on science communication on topics a) pasteurization and b) Biological Evolution on April 7, 2017. Session was officially inaugurated by Professor V. Chandrasekhar, the then Director, NISER. Program is continuing and newer students are interested in participating.
Odisha Health Consortium, Bhubaneswar:
I am involved in Health Research. Health research without participation of clinicians is not meaningful. I spearheaded an initiative to form a consortium at national and local level. On May 17, we had a first meeting with 5 clinicians (from AIIMS, BBSR, SCB medical College, Cuttack, KIIMS, BBSR, Sum Hospital, BBSR) and 5 basic researchers (from NISER, ILS and KIIT). In the first meeting we identified 4 topics (major health problem) of interest to go ahead, these are Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), Lean Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), Systemic Lupus Erythematosas (SLE) and Diabetic Foot Disease.
We decided to submit a funding proposal on PUD and NAFLD, as this is not only prevalent locally and in India, it is also a major health issue globally. We want to understand etiology of the diseases, understand the mechanism and connectivity of various stages of both diseases and a long term plan is to find an intrinsic solution to the health problem.
We also started a cluster formation among local universities and research institutes to build joint research programs and central research facility.
Besides my regular academic (teaching and research) activities, I was executing various administrative responsibilities as follows
4. Faculty-in charge
Palok Aich, PhD, Professor, School of Biological Sciences,
National Institute of Science Education & Research (NISER),
P.O. Bhimpur-Padanpur via Jatni; Bhubaneswar 752 050; Khurda, Odisha, India
O:+916742494133/2494016; F: +916742494004