Associate Professor (G), School of Biological Sciences (SBS), NISER
PDF: Biophysics/Molecular Dynamics/Molecular Biology/LASER instrumentation
Scientist @ VIDO: Innate Mucosal Immunity
Faculty @ NISER: Innate Mucosal Immunity/Gut Microbiome & Stress with emphasis on Gut-Brain-Gut Axis
@ NISER (since 2009)
Dipanjan Guha, Arka Banerjee, Raktim Mukherjee, Biswaranjan Pradhan, Maria Peneva, Georgi Aleksandrov, Sujit Suklabaidya, Shantibhushan Senapati and Palok Aich. A Probiotic formulation containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus DWT1 inhibits tumor growth by activating pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. Journal of Functional Foods 2019, 56, 232-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.03.030
J. Tomporowski, J.M. Heer, B. Allan, S. Gomis, P. Aich, Carbon nanotubes significantly enhance the biological activity of CpG ODN in chickens, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2019, 561, 135-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.02.040
Naik, A., Pandey, U., Mukherjee, R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Chakraborty, S., Ghosh, A., Aich, P. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reverses mortality in neonatal mice against Salmonella challenge. Toxicology Research (RSC) 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9TX00006B
Priyadarshini, S., Pradhan, B., Griebel, P., and Aich, P. Cortisol regulates immune and metabolic processes in murine adipocytes and macrophages through HTR2c and HTR5a serotonin receptors. Eur. J Cell Biol. 2018, 97(7), 483-492, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcb.2018.07.004 https://reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/0EE2D999A7BDB0C4C5EEB6223DB4DC4F1E...
Priyadarshini, S., Pradhan, B., and Aich, P. Role of Murine macrophage in temporal regulation of cortisol and serotonin induced adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes when grown together. Biol Open 2018, http://bio.biologists.org/content/biolopen/7/8/bio034629.full.pdf?with-d...
Pradhan, B., Guha, D., Naik, A. K., Banerjee, A., Tambat, S., Chawla, S., Senapati, S., and Aich, P. , Probiotics L. acidophilus and B. clausii Modulate Gut Microbiota in Th1- and Th2-Biased Mice to Ameliorate Salmonella Typhimurium-Induced Diarrhea. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s12602-018-9436-5 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29909486
Debakanta Mishra, Debakanta Mishra, Kaibalya R. Dash, Preetam Nath, Prasant K. Parida, Subhendu Panigrahi, Chittaranjan Khatua, Suryakant Parida, Sambit K. Behera, Shivaram P. Singh, Palok Aich. Temporal Trends in the Etiology of Chronic Liver Disease in Coastal Eastern Odisha, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, Volume 7, Supplement 2, 2017, Page S93DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2017.05.168
For complete publications, please click below
Palok Aich on ResearchGate
International project student
David Datzkiw, an international student, from, University of Winnipeg, Canada spent 6 months in the laboratory of Palok Aich of SBS, NISER. David was a recipient of Queen Elizabeth Scholarship and visited NISER as Queen Elizabeth Scholar (QES). During his visit, he mainly worked on a project related to probiotic
and adipogenesis and as a QES fellow, he was also allowed to learn diversity of Indian culture and made a few small trips around certain
areas of India like Kerala and West Bengal besides visiting local sites in Odisha. He also made his debut in scientific publication from Aich’s group at NI
SER. A figure from his first publication also could made a place in the cover page of the journal. A link for his first paper can be found at http://press.mu-varna.bg/ojs/index.php/bmr/article/view/2108. Overall his experience was great as can be seen by exploring the link http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/graduate-studies/features/bioscience-student-david-datzkiw-on-research-and-being-a-qe-scholar.html.
While science is important to understand nature and to make our living better it is more important to make people understand the value of Science. To make people aware of potentials of science is through proper communication. What is Science, what is its value, how is it done, what scientists do and why do they do it and many more questions must roam around in the minds of people. Onus is on us to make people understand and get clarified on all these issues. Moreover, Scientists do what they do using the tax payers or people’s money. Therefore, it is our moral obligation to ensure that work is disseminated appropriately and regularly to them. It is also important that senior scientists make an effort to make the juniors understand the value and need of science communication. With this goal, Dr. Palok Aich of School of Biological Sciences (SBS), NISER initiated an effort to train some interested young minds of NISER in science communication. He started with biology students and after a couple months of training around 20 biology students (PhD candidates and UG, Integrated MSc students) presented two short (around 15 minutes) programs on science communication on topics a) pasteurization and b) Biological Evolution on April 7, 2017. Session was officially inaugurated by Professor V. Chandrasekhar, the then Director, NISER. Program is continuing and newer students are interested in participating.
Odisha Health Consortium, Bhubaneswar:
I am involved in Health Research. Health research without participation of clinicians is not meaningful. I spearheaded an initiative to form a consortium at national and local level. On May 17, we had a first meeting with 5 clinicians (from AIIMS, BBSR, SCB medical College, Cuttack, KIIMS, BBSR, Sum Hospital, BBSR) and 5 basic researchers (from NISER, ILS and KIIT). In the first meeting we identified 4 topics (major health problem) of interest to go ahead, these are Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), Lean Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), Systemic Lupus Erythematosas (SLE) and Diabetic Foot Disease.
We decided to submit a funding proposal on PUD and NAFLD, as this is not only prevalent locally and in India, it is also a major health issue globally. We want to understand etiology of the diseases, understand the mechanism and connectivity of various stages of both diseases and a long term plan is to find an intrinsic solution to the health problem.
We also started a cluster formation among local universities and research institutes to build joint research programs and central research facility.
During Ph.D., (Supervisor: Professor Dipak Dasgupta), I explored mechanisms of interactions of select antitumor antibiotics with DNA and the role of magnesium ion.
I moved to Stockholm, Sweden [Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet], following submission of my Ph.D. thesis, to start my 1st PDF research (Supervisor: Professor Astrid Gräslund) career. My area of research was aimed at understanding higher ordered DNA structures (by means of 2D NMR, CD, and other biophysical techniques). Around the same time, I also got introduced into the area of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) to understand base pair dynamics in nucleic acids including PNA at single molecule level with Professor Rudolf RIgler (Rulle). We also built the world's first FCS to work in the ultraviolet region of light. In Rulle's lab, I also got trained in fixing and maintaining mainframe Argon ion laser and a dye laser.
With such background so far, I chose to move to the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada) for 2nd PDF position over other opportunities at Louis Pasteur Institute (Strasbourg, France). At Saskatoon [University of Saskatchewan] for my next PDF (Supervisor: Professor Jeremy Lee) research, I started working on establishing a higher ordered DNA structure in vivo using c-myc and c-src oncogenes. While working on the project, we discovered a novel form of DNA that could conduct electricity when doped with certain transition metal ions. This form of DNA is termed as M-DNA [M-stands for 'metal'] and we patented it. We also tried to develop abzymes against M-DNA. A company named ADNAVANCE was founded. I got so much hooked up with the discovery of M-DNA, that I declined associateship in Dana Farber Cancer Institute (Harvard University, Boston) and also turned down a job offer in a photonics company in Boston during that time.
Following my PDF training, I joined a biopharmaceutical company in Canada as a Group Leader [Bio-imaging]. After a year, I accepted a position at the University of Saskatchewan, as in-charge, Biophysical section of Saskatchewan Structural Sciences Center, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. Within a few months, I was offered a position at VIDO (now VIDO-Intervac) as a scientist to work in the areas of Omics. At VIDO, I developed several programs in the areas of innate mucosal immunity to understand effects of psychological stress on host-pathogen interactions for bovine enteric and respiratory diseases in cattle model as well as enhancing efficacy of immune stimulators using nanotechnology in chicken.
In 2009, I returned back to India for some family reasons. I joined NISER and started working on understanding the effects of psychological stress on humans.
Evolution of the work that I initiated @ NISER. Modern day world requires more work than play. While such demand puts us under various stressors (cause of stress) with the potential to perturb homeostasis. By homeostasis, I try to imply a process where physiologically we try to restore normalcy by adjusting parameters of several physiological functions of a system. A few of the interest of the lab to begin with were, how do we achieve the restoration, how are balancing acts performed among different physiological events, such as immunity, metabolism? My lab/research group developed methodologies to quantify psychological stress status of individuals, correlating stress with disease susceptibility (e.g. metabolic syndromes and infectious diseases) as well as how innate immunity can be primed to prevent against such diseases. For priming, we use mainly select probiotics and host defense peptides. We also tried to enhance the efficacy of these immune modulators by nanomaterials.
Currently, my focus is on the understanding role of the gut microbiota in modulating innate immune system and metabolism. We try to understand the effects of gut microbiome on brain and effects of psychological stress (as a perturbation to brain function) on the gut microbiota. We try to understand reversibility of Gut-Brain-Gut axis.
Hundreds of trillions (1014) of tiny creatures call our body home, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and others. They're not always bad news, and in fact, our health depends on having a thriving collection of microbes. Our results are leading to an insight that correlation, of genomic and metagenomic (especially for gut microbiota) features of individuals, could perhaps lead to a better understanding of physiology and better maintenance of health. There are microbes everywhere on our body. Some coat our skin (yes, even after we wash our hands). Others populate the inside of our mouth (some of them forming tooth-destroying plaque, and others that are harmless or beneficial). Our large intestine is the largest repository of microbes—about three pounds' worth according to some estimates. If we could count the number of individual bacterial cells, we would find that although they are small, they vastly outnumber our own, human cells.
Some of the details are fuzzy, but we know that our microbiomes are linked to our health. The immune system doesn't develop properly without signals from skin microbes. Microbes can influence obesity and have been linked to a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Clearly, our health is linked with the health of our tiny passengers, but scientists are still struggling to understand what a "healthy" microbiome should look like.
We know, for example, that people whose gut ecosystems are overrun by deadly Clostridium difficile can be cured with microbes from a healthy donor—the now famous fecal transplant. We know that probiotics can prevent a horrific infection called NEC (Necrotizing enterocolitis) that kills preemies. Beyond that, results are mostly inconclusive. Probiotics seem to protect against diarrhea in some trials but not others, for example.
While microbes seem important in maintaining health but the understanding of the mode of action and mechanisms are not clear. It has been shown that food plays an important role in setting up the microbiome in the gut but how the change in diet will alter microbiome and how will it influence health is an important area yet to be explored.
By the time our food gets to the microbes in our large intestine, the starch, sugar, fats, and proteins have been digested and absorbed. This leaves a handful of nutrients that are sometimes called "prebiotics." They include a variety of carbohydrates that our own enzymes can't digest, including soluble fiber, resistant starch, and certain oligosaccharides. It's likely that many of the beneficial effects of fiber, and of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, may be due to such a diet's effects on gut microbes.
There's no doubt that people are going to dope via microbes. There are companies talking about big cosmetic changes. There are going to be new smells, new functions. It's a really interesting area because you don't have to modify the genes of a person, right, if you want to give them a new function. You can just give them a pill with a microbe that has a new function. You might have to take that pill every day if the microbes don't stay around, but you could still add a living, bio-producing organism into your system that could last longer or do different things than a normal drug.
The main question of my research group is, how does microbiota maintain homeostasis to define health? By perturbing a normal microbiota environment we would like to know (a) how is the restoration dynamics, (b) how does the perturbation affect physiology ( e.g. metabolism and innate mucosal immunity), (c) how does gut-brain-gut axis regulate gut microbiome or how is physiology being regulated by the microbiome.
A few important leads, that currently, my group is working on, are
Systems Biology (BE1), Biophysics & Biostatistics (B203),
Science of Life (I & II) (B101 & 102)
Quantitative Biology (B558/B758) and laboratory courses
Chemical Biology (B457/B657)
Basic Techniques in Life Science
At Karolinska Institutet
Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS)
Palok Aich, PhD, Associate Professor (G), School of Biological Sciences,
National Institute of Science Education & Research (NISER),
P.O. Bhimpur-Padanpur via Jatni; Bhubaneswar 752 050; Khurda, Odisha, India
O:+916742494133/2494016; F: +916742494004